Scenario: You are running a SharePoint 2010 Farm patched to Service Pack 1 (SP1). You install a Trusted Identity Provider (TIP) but the Provider and Claims do not show up in the People Picker. Installation went fine and you can authenticate with a user who’s claims have been issued by the TIP; however, you cannot find users or claims via the People Picker. It is not known when this issue started showing up prior to SP1, because it appears to have worked after RTM; I can only confirm (from both talking to other SharePoint experts and repeated testing) it is definitely an SP1 issue.
Solution: Install a SharePoint 2010 Cumulative Update (CU) on top of SP1. In my specific instance SP1 was rolled into the SharePoint 2010 installation ISO but no CUs were installed after. I have solved my issue by installing either the June 2012 CU or the December 2012 CU. Detailed results below.
Image 1: Central Admin screen shot showing patch level. 14.0.6029.1000 is Service Pack 1 (SP1). Note: It was bundled in the installation ISO and not all running services are shown.
Image 2: Web Application Authentication Selection page in Central Admin. No Trusted Identity Providers are currently defined.
Image 4: I ran through both previous articles and registered my STS using both Powershell and a custom Win Form. In both cases I still had to manually upload my certificate even though it should have been done automatically via code or script.
Image 5: Now my custom TIP is registered with SharePoint and I have selected it for my Claims Based Web Application.
Image 6: SharePoint 2010 Sign In Selection Options. I chose STSWebSiteForSharePoint.
Image 7: I am now authenticated via my custom TIP and STS.
Image 8: Finally the issue appears. Note the absence of users and claims from the TIP. Also note that the user which I am logged in as does not show in the results.
Image 9: I have now installed the SharePoint 2010 December 2012 Cumulative Update.
Image 10: SharePoint People Picker working correctly!